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FPS Steps


Required elements
• Link to future scene (logical relationship)
• The challenge itself
• Why the challenge is a challenge

Must come from information in future scene
Either a cause or a consequence
Stated as a possibility (may, might, could)

• Fluency (the number of likely challenges)
••••••(Y) Yes (likely to exist or occur)
••••••(P) Perhaps (possible but not likely)
••••••(S) Solution (solution rather than challenge)
••••••(D) Duplicate (similar in context to another challenge)
••••••(W) Why (did not originate in future scene)
• Flexibility (the number of identified categories)
• Clarity (the quality of the written expression)
• Originality Bonus (+3): rare and insightful


Underlying Problem

Required elements
• Condition Phrase
• Key Verb Phrase (begin with “How might we...”)
• Purpose
• Future Scene Parameters (place, time, topic)

One, and only one, key verb
No absolute verbs (e.g., “stop,” “prevent”)
Failure to include purpose a very serious error

• Structure (Are required element included?)
• Focus (Is UP well defined and clearly written? Does it address the future scene’s charge?
• Adequacy/Importance (Does the UP identifies an important issue from the future scene?)

LIST test
••••••L (loose) will produce many solution ideas
••••••I (impact) major effect on the future scene
••••••S (size) appropriate for a component of the charge
••••••T (topic driven) specific rather than generic (e.g., persuade, educate)


Solution Ideas

Required elements
• Who will carry out the solution?
• What is the solution idea?
• Why is it a good idea and/or how will it work?

Begin with who will carry out the solution.
Write in the form of proposals.
Don’t repeat the future scene parameters.
Make who an organization or categories of professions.

• Fluency - number of ideas that “solve” the UP
• Flexibility - number of categories represented 
• Elaboration - Any three of who? what? why? how?
• Originality bonus (+3 points) - rare and creative



Required elements
• Begins with “Which solution...”
• Contains a superlative (e.g., least, most, greatest, etc.)

Phrased to indicate a desired direction
Concerns only one issue per criterion

• Relevance (appropriate for evaluating your UP’s solutions)
••••••Types of Criteria
••••••••••••UP-Based: based on the ideas in either KVP or purpose
••••••••••••Specific:core idea that can only be applied narrowly to this UP and/or for this topic 
••••••••••••Generic: core idea can be applied to any UPs or topic 
••••••“Flavors” for Generic and Specific Types
••••••••••••Plain: no details directly from the future scene
••••••••••••Modified: adequate details to place it firmly within UP and/or future scene. ••••••••••••Justified: condition from future scene as a rationale

Procedures for completing the grid
• Select the eight most promising solution ideas. 
• List them in eight solution idea blanks of the grid.
• Only enter a few key words for each solution. 
• Based on each criterion, rank order solution ideas from 8 (best) to 1 (least).
• No two solution ideas can receive the same score. 
• Add across the grid to total ranks given to solution ideas.
• Double-check addition on the grid.
• The solution idea with highest total rank must be used to develop your action plan. (The grid should not be manipulated.)
• In case of total rank score ties, break the tie and write a note to the evaluator explaining how you did it.


Action Plan

Required elements
• Based on the solution idea with highest total on grid
• Relates back to the underlying problem and demonstrates how KVP and purpose will be achieved 
• Represents the proposal for solving the problem identified in Underlying Problem
• Explains who, what, how, why, where and when

Follow instructions of what to do printed at the top of the Action Plan page.
Be persuasive and try to sell your idea.
Tie the Action Plan to the UP, future scene, and topic.
Add details and new facets to the action plan as long as each addition builds on the essential idea of the solution rather than introducing different solutions.

• Relevance - plan’s relationship to the UP
• Effectiveness - ability to successfully solve the UP
• Impact - positive effect of the AP on the future scene
• Humaneness - productive, positive potential
• Development of AP - degree to which plan is explained

NOTES ON THE GUIDE                

Similar and more elaborated advice is available in the Key Tips document sent to all registered coaches.

Challenges can earn a Yes score with only the required element of the challenge itself. However, the other two elements help clarify the challenge for the evaluator and promote complete written thoughts and expression. Challenges with all three required elements are far more likely to earn a Yes than those without a link to the future scene and a description of why the challenge is a challenge.

The underlying problem stem can also be written as "In what ways might we..."

The LIST test for underlying problems is not an official tip from FPSPI, but rather a tip from an experienced Virginia coach.

The who, what, why, or how required elements for solutions are required for elaboration points but not for relevance. Any three of the four will count for elaboration credit.

Beginning the solution idea by identifying who will carry out the solution is a helpful suggestion rather than a requirement.

Notice how the criteria for earning an originality bonus differs for challenges and solutions. For challenges it is "rare and insightful." For solutions it is "rare and creative."

Grid numbers can use the scale of 1 being best and 8 being least as long as the method used is consistent throughout the process.

An easy and effective way to break a tie on the grid is to go back to the grid and double the scores for the criteria the team thinks is most important. The two (or three) tied solutions can be then be compared side by side.

Be aware of overall scales that evaluate the comprehensive quality of the booklet. The overall scales are research applied, creative strength, and futuristic thinking.

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