FPS GLOSSARY


Action-based Problem Solving (AbPS) - the non-competitive component of Future Problem Solving designed for use in the regular classroom.

AbPS participants are introduced to the skills of creative problem solving in a hands-on, non-threatening manner by working on two topics, one per semester.



Action Plan - the explanation of how a team or individual's best solution will be implemented. It is the sixth and final step of the Future Problem Solving process.

The Action Plan should be persuasive as well as informative. Participants should strive to "sell" their best solution as they describe how it will be carried out.

The written action plan is the basis for the performance teams stage in the Presentation of the Action Plan competition at the State Bowl and the International Conference.

Evaluation of the Action Plan is based on the following criteria:

  • relevance to the Underlying Problem (1-5 points)

  • effectiveness in solving the Underlying Problem (1-5 points)

  • impact on the Future Scene (1-5 points)

  • humaneness - positive potential of the plan (1-5 points)

  • development of the Action Plan (1-10 points)



Adequacy/Importance of the Underlying Problem - The maximum score is granted to an underlying problem that identifies a major, important issue from the Future Scene.

Low scores are assigned to underlying problems that restate, broaden, or ignore the Future Scene, are not connected to the key verb phrase or contain a purpose that repeats the key verb phrase or condition phrase.

The scale for adequacy/importance ranges from 1 - 10 points.


Adult Division - the competitive division of Global Issues Problem Solving for teams beyond grades 4-12. 

Adult teams can be made up of groups with shared attributes, such as students from the same college campus or ad hoc groupings of adults with nothing in common other than an interest in problem solving.



Advanced Criteria - criteria specifically targeted to the core idea of the key verb phrase and the purpose of the underlying problem. Advanced criteria are scored under the relevance to the Underlying Problem category in steps 4-5 of the Global Issues Problem Solving scoresheet.

Since advanced criteria are more highly focused than generic and modified criteria, they earn the best scores.

Each criterion considered advanced receives 3 points.



Affiliate - a state or national program responsible for all Future Problem Solving programs in an assigned geographical region.

Future Problem Solving of Virginia is the FPS affiliate in the commonwealth of Virginia.

 

Affiliates Council - the governing board of Future Problem Solving Program International.

The affiliates council is made up of affiliate director from each FPSPI affiliated program. Patty Haskins is Virginia’s representative on the council.

 

 

Affiliate Director - the administrative director of a Future Problem Solving Program International state or national program.

Patty Haskins (officially the state director) is the affiliate director in Virginia.


At-large Bid - an invitation to the state bowl extended after district bids are awarded.

Unlike district bids, which are allocated according to the number of registered teams per grade level division within each school division, at-large bids are determined by rank scores regardless of district.

At-large apportionment for each grade level is determined before evaluation of the qualifying problem begins. The allocation for each district is posted on the state program's website (vafps.org).

 

 

 

Bid - an invitation to the state bowl.

Bids are based on qualifying problem performance and distributed according to a formula specified in each years rules of the competition. (See district bids, at-large bids, and host bids.)


Board of Trustees - the Future Problem Solving Program International body that provides expertise in various components of the business and operation structure of the program.

Members of the board of trustees include affiliate directors and outside experts in fields such as policy, finance, accounting, and non-profit law.


Booklet - the official written entry of the six-step Global Issues Problem Solving competition.

The booklet is essentially composed of empty cells in which participants record their ideas.

GIPS competitors must use an official booklet template posted on the vafps.org website.

The booklet template for FPSers participating as Individuals contains the reduced set of cells that conform to the requirements of the Individual competition.

Virginia competitors may use the optional training booklet for the first practice problem, but for no other problem round.


Booklet Submission - the process for submitting booklets to the state Future Problem Solving office for evaluation.

For practice problems, cover sheets issued by VAFPS provide coaches with instructions for submitting booklets, including deadlines.

For qualifying problem submissions, coaches are required to make two copies of each booklet and cover sheet. The first copy should be mailed along with the original booklet and cover sheet to the VAFPS Evaluation Director on or before the postmark deadline date. Submissions should be posted by first class mail, never by certified mail. The second copy should be safely stored with the coach since original booklets will not be returned.

Participants' names must be printed clearly on the cover sheet. After the Qualifying Problem evaluation has been completed, names on the cover sheet will be used to publish state bowl invitations on the program's website and to prepare materials for the bowl. Spelling errors may occur if names are hard to read.

All work must be hand-written on an official blank FPS booklet.

No work should be done on the back of pages. Additional blank pages may be added if needed. Work submitted on the back of pages will not be evaluated.

Make sure copies are clear and legible. Evaluators may not be able to adequately score work from poorly made copies.


Brainstorming - a method for generating ideas for the purpose of enhancing divergent thinking.

Future Problem Solving teams generally use brainstorming techniques in steps 1 (challenges), step 3 (solutions) and step 4 (criteria). The method is also used in sub-steps such as selection of an underlying problem and details of the action plan.

There are four basic "rules" for brainstorming:

  • Focus on quantity over quality

  • Never criticize the ideas of others (defer judgements until after the brainstorming session)

  • Come up with wild ideas ("freewheel")

  • Combine and improve ideas from others ("piggyback")


Brainstorming was originally developed by Alex Osborn in 1939 as a creative problem solving strategy. Creative Problem Solving is a forerunner of Future Problem Solving and one of the three primary components of the program as conceived by E. Paul Torrance

 





Calendar - the schedule of events and deadlines for Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

The calendar for each year is posted in August on vafps.org.

Sometimes, depending upon circumstances, deadlines may be extended or events postponed or rescheduled.


Categories - the list of classification themes or subject areas used to evaluate the flexibility of challenges and solutions in FPS booklets.

The following items are included on the category list:

 

  • Arts & Aesthetic

  • Basic Needs

  • Business & Commerce

  • Communication

  • Defense

  • Economics

  • Education

  • Environment

  • Ethics & Religion

  • Government & Politics

  • Law & Justice

  • Miscellaneous

  • Physical Health

  • Psychological Health

  • Recreation

  • Social Relationships

  • Technology

  • Transportation


A challenge or solution may be found to contain more than one category and count toward the total flexibility score.

Categories are determined by evaluators, not the writers who prepared the booklet.

Evaluators may create categories of their own if they believe the future scene justifies the addition.


Challenges - potential problems or constructive possibilities that appear to occur in future scenes. Identification of challenges is the first formal step in the six-step Future Problem Solving process.

Challenges must be posed in terms of possibilities (may, might, could) because they predict potential consequences rather than report on current conditions. Simply repeating a problematic situation from a future scene does not constitute a challenge. Situations appearing in a future scene can only suggest future actions or conditions which can be molded into challenges.

There are three parts to a complete challenge:

 

  1. A link to the future scene (how the challenge logically relates to the future scene)

  2. The challenge itself

  3. Why the challenge is a challenge.


Challenges are evaluated on three criteria:
 

  1. Fluency - problems or opportunities that are likely to exist or occur (1-10 points)

  2. Flexibility - the number of categories used (0-10 points)

  3. Clarity - the quality of the written expression (0-10 points).


Teams may submit up to 16 challenges for each problem solving round with the exception of Practice Problem 1 which calls for eight challenges.

Participants competing as Individual may submit no more than eight challenges.

Participants can earn three extra originality bonus points for a challenge that an evaluator considers rare and insightful. Rare, in the future problem solving context, means that the challenge does not appear in any other booklet within the set a particular evaluator is reviewing. To receive an originality bonus, the challenge must be both rare and insightful in the evaluators judgement.


Clarity - the evaluation scale used to measure how well challenges identify concerns and relate to the future scene.

Booklets with clear details and logical cause and effect relationships receive the highest scores.

The scale for clarity phrase ranges from 1-10 points.


Coach - the trainer and instructional leader of a Future Problem Solving team or participant competing as an Individual.

Each competitive team or Individual, with the exception of teams in the Global Issues Problem Solving adult division, must have a designated coach. The coach is responsible for the administration of the program and serves as the intermediary between the team and Future Problem Solving of Virginia.


Community Problem Solving (CmPS) - the competitive program of Future Problem Solving that allows participants to use the six-step FPS process to solve authentic, real world problems of their own choosing.

CmPS projects stem from self-identified concerns existing within a school, local community, region, state, or nation.

CmPS projects may be addressed by either teams or Individuals.

Each team or Individual participant competes in a grade level division established by Future Problem Solving (junior 4-6, middle 7-9, and senior 10-12).


Condition Phrase - a brief explanation of the condition or conditions in the future scene that prompted selection of the underlying problem.

Each underlying problem must include a condition phrase containing accurate information to receive full credit on the condition phrase scale on the evaluation form.

Condition phrases are ideally short and may contain actual quotes from the future scene. They may be a simple phrase attached to the Underlying Problem question, or a sentence separate from the Underlying Problem question.

The scale for step 2 condition phrase ranges from 0-2 points.


Convergent Thinking - the systematic and logical process of determining the quality of options based on predetermined criteria.

Convergent thinking is best understood when compared with divergent thinking in that convergent thinking depends heavily on analysis and measured judgement while divergent thinking is more spontaneous and free-flowing.

The Future Problem Solving process employs both divergent and convergent procedures for reaching the best solution for the given situation in the future scene. Generally, divergent thinking precedes convergent thinking.

Step 2 (underlying problem), step 5 (grid evaluation) are considered convergent, but some steps, such as step 2 (underlying problem) and step 6 (action plan) contain elements of both divergent and convergent thinking.


Correctly Written (criteria) - the scale used to evaluate the accuracy of each identified criterion in step four of a Global Issues Problem Solving booklet.

Correctly written criteria use a single dimension in the desired direction (best not worst; fastest not slowest in most contexts) and contain a superlative.

The scale for correctly written criteria ranges from 1-5 points.


Correctly Used (criteria) - the evaluation scale used to measure the accuracy of addition on the evaluation grid.

The scale for correctly written criteria ranges from 1-5 points.


Cover Sheet - the official form that identifies the team or Individual competing in Future Problem Solving.

Each Global Issues Problem Solving booklet must include a fully completed cover sheet.

Cover sheets for the two practice problems are delivered with the registration packet issued by Future Problem Solving of Virginia. Qualifying problem cover sheets are mailed separately before the competition.

Qualifying problem cover sheets require the signatures of participants and coaches attesting to adherence to the rules of the competition.

Cover sheets provide important information, such as the postmark deadline and procedures for mailing the booklet to the state evaluation director.


Creative - a solution considered especially inventive or ingenious by a Future Problem Solving of Virginia evaluator.

Solutions considered creative and rare are rewarded with a 3-point originality bonus on top of other points earned for the item.


Creative Problem Solving - the model for the problem solving component of the Future Problem Solving Program.

Alex Osborn originated Creative Problem Solving in 1954 and further developed the multi-step model in partnership with Sidney Parnes. E. Paul Torrance adapted the process into the Olympic-style competition that became Future Problem Solving.


Creative Strength (of overall booklet) - the evaluation scale used to measure the originality and productive thinking of the overall booklet.

The most creative efforts display inventive and ingenious ideas throughout the booklet.

The scale for creative strength ranges from 1-10 points.


Criteria - the five standards used to measure the relative effectiveness of solutions. Identification of criteria is the fourth step in the six-step Future Problem Solving process.

Each criterion must isolate one and only one issue.

Each criterion must contain a superlative (least, most, greatest, etc.).

Each criterion must indicate a desired direction (highest or lowest, best or worst, etc.).

Criteria are generally phrased as questions (for example, Which solution is...), but may be acceptable in another form if the criterion is complete and clear.

Criteria are evaluated on the following two scales:

 

  • correctly written - single dimension, superlative, desired direction (1-5 points)

  • applicability and relevance - degree to which the criteria targets the core idea of the key verb phrase and the purpose of the underlying problem (1-15 points).


Each criterion is scored on a three-point scale:
 

  • generic - idea can be applied to nearly every underlying problem for nearly every topic (1 point)

  • modified - adequate detail to place it firmly within the identified underlying problem and/or the future scene of the topic under investigation (2 points)

  • advanced - specifically targeted to the core idea of the key verb 
 phrase and the purpose of the underlying problem (3 points)


 




Deadline (see Postmark Deadline)


Development of the Action Plan - the evaluation scale that measures the degree to which the action plan is explained.

High scoring action plan developments are well elaborated and provide more detail than basic who, what, where, when, how, and why elements.

The scale for development of the action plan ranges from 1-10 points.


District - the school division in which a team or Individual competes in Future Problem Solving.

Independent teams and Individuals must compete in the school district of the coach's residence.


District Bid - a state bowl invitation which is automatically extended to the highest-ranking team(s) in each school division.

The number of district bids allocated to a school district is based on the number of teams participating at each grade level in that division in the yearlong program.

District bids apportionment for each grade level is determined before evaluation of the qualifying problem begins. The allocation for each district is posted on the state program's website (vafps.org).


Divergent Thinking - the open-ended and creative process of exploring ideas and possible solutions to solve a problem.

Divergent thinking is best understood when compared with divergent thinking in that convergent thinking depends heavily on analysis and measured judgement while divergent thinking is more spontaneous and free-flowing.

Brainstorming is a divergent thinking strategy.

The Future Problem Solving process employs both divergent and convergent procedures for reaching the best solution for the given situation in the future scene. Generally, divergent thinking precedes convergent thinking.

Step 1 (challenges), step 3 (solution ideas) and step 4 (criteria) are considered divergent steps, but some steps, such as steps 2 (underlying problem) and step 6 (action plan) contain elements of both divergent and convergent thinking.


Duplicate (challenges and solutions) - replication of the basic idea of a challenge or solution idea.

A duplicate in Future Problem Solving does not mean that the challenge or solution idea is necessarily identical to another item. It only means that it is too similar in context to represent a distinct idea.

Challenges and solution ideas scored as duplicates do not receive credit toward fluency points and cannot be scored for elaboration or flexibility (categories).

 





Effectiveness (of Action Plan) - the evaluation scale that measures the action plan's potential to successfully solve the underlying problem.

The scale for effectiveness of the action plan ranges from 1-5 points.


Elaboration - the evaluation scale used to measure the addition of significant information to step 2 Solution Ideas beyond basic explanation.

Participants can add points to their scores by including any three of the "who," "what," "why," and "how" elements to each solution idea.

Identification of "when" and "where" elements do not normally count toward elaboration points because they have been previously identified in step 2 (underlying problem) parameters. However, location and time elements can be included for elaboration if they are substantial in nature. For example, if the "where" is a specific place that the solution will take place and not the simply the information tacked on from the future scene or underlying problem, it may be considered for elaboration.

The scale for elaboration ranges from 1-10 points.


Evaluation Scale - the range of possible scores for each step, based on the scoring guidelines of the evaluation scoresheet.

Evaluation scales provide a numeric range for totaling scores or a rubric to measure overall quality.


Evaluator - a Virginia Future Problem Solving official who assesses and scores the quality of entries submitted for various components of the Future Problem Solving program.

Each component (GIPS, CmPS, Scenario Writing, Scenario Performance, and AbPS) is served by a separate set of evaluators.

All evaluators in Virginia must be certified by the evaluation director after participating in extensive training.


Evaluation Criteria (see criteria)


Evaluation Director - the Future Problem Solving of Virginia executive who oversee the evaluation of all competitive Global Issues Problem Solving programs and non-competitive practice problems in Virginia.

Patty Haskins directs evaluation in Virginia.


Executive Board - the governing body of Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

Each member of the executive board supervises and coordinates a program or service provided by the program. There are currently six members of the board:

 

  • Patty Haskins - State Director and Evaluation Directo

  • Rose Browning - Action-based Problem Solving Coordinator

  • Katie Conner - Scenario Performance Coordinator and Webmaster

  • Anne Evans - Community Problem Solving Coordinator

  • Joanne Stanley - Scenario Writing Coordinator

  • Patti Rabil - State Bowl Coordinator.

 







Fact Sheet - a one-page guide for each step in the Future Problem Solving process.

Fact sheets were developed by Future Problem Solving of Virginia and can be downloaded from the resources page of the website (vafps.org).

A single sheet quick reference guide, which consolidates critical information from the fact sheets, is also available for download.


Flexibility - the evaluation scale used to measure the number of challenges and solution ideas from different categories.

Flexibility scores are computed by counting the number of categories employed from the category list that have received Y (yes) scores on challenges and R (relevant) scores on solutions. (See the category list.)

Flexibility is an important goal of creative thinkers. Highly flexible problem solvers can think broadly and approach situations and issues from different perspectives.

The scale for flexibility ranges from 1-10 points.


Fluency - the evaluation scale which measures the number of ideas that identify a logical challenge or "solve" the underlying problem.

FPS participants are evaluated on fluency in steps 1 (Challenges) and step 3 (Solution Ideas). Fluency scores are computed by counting the number of Y (yes) scores on challenges and R (relevant) scores on solution ideas.

The quality of fluency is an important goal for creative thinkers because fluent problem solvers can generate numerous solutions to a wide variety of issues and problems.

The scale for fluency ranges from 1-10 points.

 

 

Focus (of the Underlying Problem) - the evaluation scale that measures the quality of the underlying problem in terms of clarity of written expression and how well it addresses the future scene's charge.

The scale for focus ranges from 1-10 points.


FPSPI Association - a Future Problem Solving Program International organization that promotes collaboration among individuals in affiliate programs and others interested in the Creative Problem Solving process.

Subscribers receive guidelines and documents for all FPS components, supplemental materials, details for accessing other members of the association, and additional information throughout the year.


FPSP Mart - the online store for purchasing Future Problem Solving support materials.

The Mart is operated by Future Problem Solving Program International.

Since FPS affiliates do not sell instructional products, essential materials such as Readings, Research, and Resources must be secured from the Mart's website (http://www.fpspimart.org).


Future Problem Solving - a multi-step process created by E. Paul Torrance to promote critical thinking and problem solving.

Torrance combined three elements to develop the program:

 

  1. An interdisciplinary study of the future

  2. A modification of the Creative Problem Solving process

  3. An Olympic-style elimination tournament


The first competition was held in 1974 with gifted students from Athens, Georgia. Today, the method forms the core process of Future Problem Solving Program International and is implemented worldwide.


Future Problem Solving Program International (FPSPI) - the international organization responsible for the structure and operation of Future Problem Solving programs throughout the world.

The stated mission of FPSPI is "to develop the ability of young people globally to design and achieve positive futures through problem solving using critical and creative thinking."

Although each affiliate is autonomous, the international program oversees and guides the overall direction of Future Problem Solving.

FPSPI produces and markets instructional materials and stages the annual International Conference, the final event of the year-long competition.

The international office is located in Melbourne, Florida.


Future Problem Solving of Virginia (VAFPS) - the Future Problem Solving Program International affiliate for teams and Individuals competing in the commonwealth of Virginia.

VAFPS began in 1991. The first state bowl held in Williamsburg.

The program is administered by an executive board with headquarters in Midlothian. The state director, Patty Haskins, is the chief operations officer and represents Virginia on the FPSPI’s affiliates council.


Future Scene - the document that describes the situation Future Problem Solvers are expected to solve in Global Issue Problem Solving competitions.

Future scenes are generally one page in length and set about 30 years in the future.

Challenges may originate from information anywhere in the future scene, but the underlying problem must conform to the restrictions set forth in the future scene charge.

Two future scenes are provided for each problem: a junior division version for grades 4-6 and a more detailed version for grades 7-12 and adult participants. Future Problem Solvers in the northern hemisphere use the same future scenes in the same order. Because of reversed seasons of the southern hemisphere, some shifting of the order of future scenes occurs.

Future scenes may be viewed in advance for practice problems 1 and 2 at the discretion of coaches. However, from the qualifying problem to the International Conference, future scenes must be secured and kept from view until the closely-timed competitions begins.

No participant or coach may post any future scene on social media or websites within three years of the competition and not without the express permission of the state director of Future Problem Solving of Virginia.


Future Scene Charge - the specific instruction to Global Issues Problem Solving booklet writers indicating the focus area or areas of the future scene that must be addressed in their selection of an underlying problem.

Future scene charges set limits for what can and cannot be selected as a concern for the underlying problem.

Charges may be narrow, broad or in between. Narrow charges restrict the use of minor or major themes from the future scene in the development of an underlying problem. Broad charges, by definition, allow participants to take most of the future scene's content into account when establishing an underlying problem.

Future scene charges generally appear at or near the end of the future scene. Exceptions to this practice may occasionally occur.

The charge only impacts the construction of the underlying problem. It does not restrict identification of challenges. Challenges may deal with any aspects of future scene.

Many teams and individuals highlight the future scene charge and keep it prominently in view as they explore selection of an underlying problem.


Future scene parameters - the three specific conditions that define the setting of the underlying problem: place, time, and topic.

Parameters must conform to information provided in the Future Scene.

The presence of parameters is measured in the underlying problem section of the scoresheet.

The scale for future scene parameters ranges from 0-2 points.


Futuristic Thinking - the evaluation scale that measures how well futuristic concepts are developed throughout the booklet and how those ideas impact future societies.

The futuristic thinking scale is recorded in the overall scoring section of the scoresheet and ranges from 1-10 points.


Fuzzy - a nickname sometimes used for the future scene.

The term "fuzzy" was commonly used when the future scene was called the fuzzy situation. The name is an artifact of an earlier time; all official materials now use the term future scene.





Generic Criteria - criteria whose core idea is so common it can be applied to nearly every underlying problem for nearly every topic.

Generic criteria are scored under the applicability and relevance category on the Global Issues Problem Solving scoresheet.

Because generic criteria lack focus, they are scored lower than modified and advanced criteria (1 per criterion).


Global Issues Problem Solving (GIPS) - The basic problem solving model for the Future Problem Solving Program.

Although GIPS has been modified and refined over the years, it is the original Future Problem Solving program.

The six-step process was developed by E. Paul Torrance in 1974.

The six steps of the GIPS process are:

 

  1. Identification of challenges related to the topic or Future Scene

  2. Selection of an Underlying Problem

  3. Generation of solution ideas to the Underlying Problem

  4. Generation of criteria to evaluate solution ideas

  5. Evaluation of solution ideas

  6. Development of an Action Plan


New global Issues topics are announced each spring prior to the competitive year.

Community Problem Solvers are required to use the GIPS structure for their projects, and Scenario Writers and Performers must use GIPS topics in the creation of their entries.

Each team or individual participant competes in a grade level division established by Future Problem Solving (junior 4-6, middle 7-9, and senior 10-12).


Grade Level Division - the three division of the Future Problem Solving competition organized by the participant's current grade level.

The three grade levels are

  • Junior (grades 4-6)

  • Middle (grades 7-9)

  • Senior (grades 10-12)


The grade level of a team is determined by the participant in the highest grade level. (For example, if three students are in the 6th grade, but the fourth student is a 7th grader, the team must participate in the middle division.

Grade level divisions are used in all Future Problem Solving of Virginia programs except Action-based Problem Solving. Adult teams participate independently from grade level divisions.


Grid/evaluation of solution ideas - the evaluation instrument used to compare the quality of solutions for each identified criterion. Evaluation of solution ideas is the fifth step in the six-step Future Problem Solving process.

A blank grid is provided in each global issues problem solving booklet.

Only the eight best solutions are placed on the grid. Solutions should be entered with a brief description to jog the memory.

If the grid produces a tie, the team or Individual producing the booklet must break the tie and explain their method for resolving the issue. The most common procedure is to double the most important criteria score. The best solution cannot combine two solution ideas.

It is advisable to allow the grid to reveal the best solution without "rigging" the evaluation to favor a particular solution. If criteria are well identified, the best alternative should naturally rise to the top.

It is important to carefully tabulate numbers on the grid since addition errors may produce incorrect results and a lower score.

"Correctly used," which measures the accuracy of the grid, is the only criterion for evaluating the quality of solution ideas.

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H


Host Bid - a bid extended to state bowl host school.

The selection of the host bid is based on booklet quality after the district’s bid allocation is filled.

••••LINK:

Bid





Humaneness (of the action plan) - the evaluation scale that measures the "productive, positive potential" of the action plan.

The scale for humaneness ranges from 1-5 points.

NOTE: Future Problem Solving of Virginia (as opposed to the international program) does not permit inhumane solutions. All such entries are automatically eliminated from consideration for fluency and flexibility and receive lower scores on the overall humaneness scale.

••••LINKS:

Action Plan

Fluency

Overall Scale


I


Impact (of the Action Plan) - the evaluation scale that measures the action plan's positive effect on the future scene.

The scale for impact ranges from 1-5 points.

••••LINK:

Future Scene





Individual Competition (GIPS and CmPS) - a competition for Global Issues Problem Solving and Community Problem Solving participants who compete alone rather than on a team.

Individuals in the Global Issues Problem Solving program compete with an abbreviated booklet: eight challenges, one underlying problem, eight solutions, five criteria, grid, and action plan.

The winning Individual in GIPS and CmPS competition may be invited to represent Virginia at the international conference based on the quality of work as determined by the evaluation and state directors.

The winning Individual in GIPS and CmPS competition may be invited to represent Virginia at the international conference subject to selection by the state director.

••••LINKS:

Booklet

Community Problem Solving

Global Issues Problem Solving

International Conference

State Director





Insightful - a challenge that is judged to demonstrate deep understanding of the topic or future scene under consideration.

The concept of "insight" is used to determine whether or not a challenge can be awarded a three-point originality bonus. To receive the bonus, the item must be both rare and insightful in the opinion of the evaluator.

••••LINKS:

Originality Bonus

Challenge

Evaluator

Future Scene

Rare

Topic





International Conference (IC) - the final stage of the year-long Future Problem Solving Program in which the best competitors from around the world gather together for a variety of competitions.

Virginia's Global Issues Problem Solving representatives to the International Conference are selected at the state bowl.

Community Problem Solving and both scenario writing and scenario performance representatives to IC are selected earlier and announced at the state bowl.

The University hosting the International Conference changes from year to year.

••••LINKS:

Global Issues Problem Solving

Scenario Performance

Scenario Writing

State Bowl





Individual - A participant in the Global Issues Problem Solving or Community Problem Solving competition who competes alone rather than on a team.

Individuals compete with a reduced workload in Global Issues Problem Solving booklet-writing sessions: eight challenges, one underlying problem, eight solutions, five criteria, grid, and action plan.

••••LINKS:

Booklet

Community Problem Solving

Global Issues Problem Solving


J


Junior Division - the competitive division of Future Problem Solving for participants in grades 4-6.

••••LINK:

Grade Level Division


K


Key Tips - an instructional and reference document produced by Future Problem Solving International to provide coaches and FPSers with essential information on each step of the FPS process.

The Key Tips review each step and contain helpful examples of both inferior and exemplary work by FPSers. It provides the key tips for Global Issues Problem Solving as well as for Community Problem Solving, Scenario Writing, and Scenario Performance.

FPSPI Coaches may purchase key tips documents for $35 from FPSPI.

••••LINKS:

Community Problem Solving

Future Problem Solving Program International

Global Issues Problem Solving

Scenario Performance

Scenario Writing





Key Verb - the first word of a key verb phrase which specifies what action is to be taken to solve the underlying problem.

The KVP should be flexible, with no absolute verbs such as "stop" or "solve."

Participants should avoid generic verbs such a "educate" or “persuade."

••••LINKS:

Key Verb Phrase

Underlying Problem





Key Verb Phrase (KVP) - the action component of the underlying problem which states what is to be accomplish.

The KVP should be singular, containing only one task. It follows the stem the stem ("How might we" or "In what ways might we”) in the booklet.

The scale for inclusion of the key verb phrase ranges from 0-3 points. The quality of the key verb phrase is evaluated in the focus and adequacy sections of the scoresheet.

••••LINKS:

Key Verb

Stem

Underlying Problem

 

 

 

M


Middle Division - the competitive division of Future Problem Solving for participants in grades 7-9.

••••LINK:

Grade Level Division






Modified Criteria - criteria with adequate detail to place it firmly within the identified underlying problem and/or the future scene of the topic under investigation.

Modified criteria are scored under the applicability and relevance section of the Global Issues Problem Solving scoresheet.

Modified criteria fall between generic criteria and advanced criteria and are scored accordingly (2 points per criterion).

••••LINKS:

Advanced Criteria

Applicability and Relevance

Criteria

Future Scene

Generic Criteria

Global Issues Problem Solving

Underlying Problem





Mover & Shaker - the annual award to an individual who has made a significant contribution to Future Problem Solving in Virginia.

The Executive Board of VAFPS selects the Mover & Shaker.

The Mover & Shaker award is unique to the Virginia FPS program.

This is the list of Movers & Shakers since the program began:

1992 Kathleen Ripley
1993 Vickram Chiruvolu
1994 Susan Cowardin
1995 Ernestine Baise
1996 Peggy Raup
1997 Sue Sherry
1998 George Schauer
1999 Matthew Baise
2000 Carolyn Stamm
2001 Judy Hornbeck
2002 Robert Corvin
2003 Sandy Horton
2004 Cheryl McCullough
2005 Neil Stamm
2006 Joanne Stanley & Barbara Havens
2007 Patty Rabil
2008 Fred Lampazzi
2009 David Dorsey
2010 Annabel Brown
2011 Andy Tate
2012 Jenny Christman
2013 Margaret Carpenter
2014 Teri Zurfluh
2015 Farimae Tate
2016 Dr. Ian Hagemann
2017 Daniel Sun
2018 Dan Baise

••••LINKS:

Executive Board

Future Problem Solving of Virginia


O

 

Originality Bonus - the three-point bonus awarded to challenges and solution ideas that are considered exceptionally outstanding in the context of problem solving.

Originality bonuses for challenges are awarded for rare and insightful entries while originality bonuses for solution ideas are awarded for rare and creative ideas. Items cannot be considered rare if the same idea appears in any other booklet scored by the same evaluator within the same set of booklets.

To receive the bonus, the item must be both rare and insightful in step one challenges or rare and creative in step three solution ideas.

Awarding of originality bonuses rests solely on the judgement of the evaluator.

The three-points awarded for each original idea are added to other credits and included in the total earned in the step.

••••LINKS:

Challenges

Creative

Evaluator

Insightful

Rare

Solution Ideas





Overall Scoring Scales - the section of the scoresheet that measures performance throughout the booklet rather than item by item.

There are three overall scales: research applied, creative strength, and futuristic thinking.

••••LINKS:

Creative Strength

Futuristic Thinking

Research Applied

Scoresheet


P


Parameters - (see Future Scene Parameters)

 

 

 

Perhaps (P) for challenges - the evaluation rating given for a challenge when its meaning is considered ambiguous or more information is needed to connect the idea to the key verb phrase and purpose.

Challenges scored with a “P” for perhaps do not receive points for fluency, elaboration, or flexibility and are ineligible for an originality bonus.

••••LINKS:

Challenge

Elaboration

Flexibility

Fluency

Originality Bonus

Underlying Problem





Perhaps (P) for Solution Ideas - the evaluation rating of a solution idea judged to answer the key verb phrase, support the purpose, and demonstrate a clear or easily inferred connection to the purpose.

A solution idea must be considered relevant to receive points on the step 3 fluency scale.

A solution idea which does not receive a (R) cannot receive points for fluency, elaboration, flexibility or be considered for an originality bonus.

••••LINKS:

Elaboration

Key Verb Phrase

Originality Bonus

Purpose

Solution Idea





Postmark Deadline - the date by which competitive entries or registrations must be mailed to the state office.

Late entries are subject to disqualification, penalties, or fines.

Postmark dates are printed on competition cover sheets and on the program calendar available at vafps.org.

••••LINKS:

Calendar

Cover sheets

Registration

vafps.org





Power Strategies - Future Problem Solving techniques that successful Virginia coaches have identified as especially helpful.

Power strategies are listed on each of the six-step fact sheets available on the resources page of vafps.org.

••••LINKS:

Fact Sheet

Resource Page





Practice Problem 1 - the first Global Issues Problem Solving booklet writing session in the year-long Future Problem Solving calendar.

Practice problem 1 entries require only 8 challenges, an underlying problem, 8 challenges, 3 criteria, an evaluation grid, and an action plan, which is a reduced workload from booklet that follow.

Both practice problems, as the name suggests, are designed to strengthen problem solving skills and do not count toward state bowl bids. However, teams and Individuals receive complete feedback about their efforts from a state evaluator.

Practice Problem 1 and 2 booklets are ranked according to their relative scores in a set of booklets. The results are posted as first place (gold), second place (silver) and third place (bronze) in the “Ranks of Royalty” on the vafps.org website.

Coaches may, at their discretion, suspend rules for practice problems. They may exceed time limits, provide assistance, allow more than four students to participate, and complete the booklet over multiple sessions.

••••LINKS:

Booklet

Coach

Evaluator

Global Issues Problem Solving

Practice Problem 2

Ranks of Royalty





Practice Problem 2 - the second entry in the year-long Global Issues Problem Solving competition.

Practice problem 2 is designed to provide participants with feedback to help prepare them for the qualifying problem. Evaluation of the second practice problem does not count in determination of state bowl bids. However, teams and Individuals receive complete feedback about their efforts from a state evaluator.

Practice Problem 1 and 2 booklets are ranked according the their relative scores in a set of an evaluator's booklets. The results are posted as first place (gold), second place (silver) and third place (bronze) in the “Ranks of Royalty” on the vafps.org website.

Coaches may, at their discretion, suspend rules for practice problems. They may exceed time limits, provide assistance, allow more than four students to participate, and complete the booklet over multiple sessions.

••••LINKS:

Booklet

Coach

Evaluator

Global Issues Problem Solving

Practice Problem 1

Qualifying Problem

Ranks of Royalty





Presentation of the Action Plan - a state bowl competition in which teams present their action plans with a brief skit.

Presentation of action plan scores do not impact state bowl booklet scores. However, each team must stage a presentation in order to qualify to receive an award in the booklet-writing competition.

Participation in the presentation of the action plan competition is restricted to individuals or team members who contributed to the writing of a GIPS booklet at the state bowl or registered CmPS, Scenario Writing and Scenario Performance finalists.

Up to seven students may participate in the presentation, but all must have competed in the same grade level division (or lower division) and hail from the same school district.

Senior division participants stage their presentation on Friday night and serve as evaluators of Junior and Middle division teams on Saturday.

Junior and Middle teams are evaluated in two rounds.

Each presentation may last no longer than four minutes.

Each presentation begins with a team member reading the team's underlying problem and a brief summary of its action plan.

Prop lists are distribute on Friday night at the state bowl. The actual props are distribute on Saturday morning.

Coaches and spectators may record team presentations. However, no participant or coach may post presentation videos in part or whole on social media or websites within three years of the competition and not without the express permission of the state director of Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

••••LINKS:

Community Problem Solving

Grade Level Division

Scenario Writing

Junior Division

Middle Division

Scenario Presentation

Scenario Writing

Senior Division

State Bowl

Underlying Problem





Purpose of the Underlying Problem - the component of the underlying problem that explains why the team or FPSer competing as an individual has chosen to tackle the task specified in the key verb phrase.

Omission of the purpose in the underlying problem is a serious error that affects evaluation scales throughout the scoresheet and can eliminate a booklet from consideration as a finalist at the state bowl.

The presence and quality of the purpose in relation to the key verb phrase is measured in the underlying problem section of the scoresheet.

The scale for inclusion of a purpose ranges from 0-3 points, but is also evaluated elsewhere on the scoresheet.

••••LINKS:

Scoresheet

Underlying Problem


Q


Qualifying Problem - the booklet-writing competition that determines bids for the state bowl.

Although the qualifying problem is conducted locally, participants must follow state bowl rules of the competition to the letter.

••••LINKS:

Bids

Qualifying Problem

Rules of the Competition

State Bowl





Quick Reference Guide - a study guide and training aid which provides essential information about each step in the Future Problem Solving process.

The quick reference guide was developed by Future Problem Solving of Virginia and can be downloaded from the resources section of vafps.org.

An expanded version of the guide, providing additional details in separate documents for each step, is also available online. (see fact sheets)

••••LINKS:

Fact Sheet

Future Problem Solving of Virginia

vafps.org


R


Rank/Rankings - the relative position of a team or participant competing as an individual within a particular set of booklets. Rank is determined by comparing raw scores.

Ranking determines which teams or Individuals advance to a higher level in the Olympic-style competition.

••••LINKS:

Raw Score





Ranks of Royalty - the list of top performers on practice problems.

The top ranked teams and Individuals competing as Individuals from each evaluator's set of booklets is recognized as gold. The second is ranked as silver and third as bronze. The Ranks of Royalty are posted on the program's website (vafps.org) after the ranks are determined for each problem.

The Ranks of Royalty are unofficial and inconclusive since the rules for practice problems can be suspended.

••••LINKS:

Practice Problem 1

Practice Problem 2

vafps.org





Rare - a challenge or solution that does not appear in any other booklet within the set that a particular evaluator is reviewing.

The concept of "rare" is used to determine whether or not a challenge or solution can be awarded a three-point originality bonus. To receive the bonus, the item must be both rare and insightful (challenge) or rare and creative (solution ideas) in the judgement of the evaluator.

••••LINKS:

Challenge

Creative

Evaluator

Insightful

Rare

Solution Idea





Raw Score - the total number of points a team or participant competing as an individual receives on a round of booklet writing. Raw scores are used to tabulate team rankings.

Although raw scores are tabulated, they are only important as they relate to other scores in a particular set of booklets. Raw scores should not be used to compare booklet quality examined by different evaluators. It is ultimately the ranking that determine which teams and Individuals advance.

••••LINK:

Rank/Rankings





Registration - enrollment in a workshop or competition offered by Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

All FPS competitions in Virginia must be registered online at vafps.org.

Each registration is subject to a deadline posted on the website.

••••LINKS:

Deadline

vafps.org

Workshop





Relevant (R) - the evaluation rating of a solution idea judged to answer the key verb phrase, support the purpose, and demonstrate a clear or easily inferred connection to the purpose.

A solution idea must receive a yes score to be factored into the formula for assigning points to the solution idea fluency scale.

A solution idea which does not receive a (R) cannot receive points on elaboration or be considered for an originality bonus.

••••LINKS:

Elaboration

Key Verb Phrase

Originality Bonus

Purpose

Solution Idea





Relevance of the action plan - the evaluation scale that measures the action plan's relationship to the underlying problem.

The scale for relevance ranges from 1-5 points.

••••LINKS:

Action Plan

Underlying Problem





Relevance of connection of criteria to underlying problem - the evaluation scale that measures the quality of criteria in steps 4 and 5 of the Global Issues Problem Solving scoresheet.

Criteria can be measured with the following assessments:

Advanced (A) - 3 points
Modified (M) - 2 points
Generic (G) - 1 point
Duplicate (D) - 0 points
Not Relevant (NR) 0 points

The scale for relevance ranges from 0-3 points per criterion, for a total of 0-15 points.

••••LINKS:

Advanced

Duplicate

Criteria

Generic

Global Issues Problem Solving

Modified

Scoresheet

Underlying Problem





Research - the process of acquiring knowledge about the topic under study.

Research on the upcoming topic is the real first step of the Future Problem Solving process. It should be focused on future trends and projections since the future scene in every topic will be set approximately 30 years in the future.





Research Applied (in Overall Scale) - the evaluation scale that measures evidence of research and thorough knowledge of the topic throughout the booklet.

The research applied scale is recorded in the overall scoring section of the scoresheet and ranges from 1-10 points.

••••LINK:

Research





Resource Page - The webpage of vafps.org that provides helpful tips and guidance about the Future Problem Solving program.

The resource page provides information for both coaches and FPSers.

••••LINK:

Resource Webpage





Rules of the Competition - the regulations, policies, and procedures that govern all Future Problem Solving in Virginia competitions.

Rules are revised and published in August for the following year's competition.

••••LINK:

Rules on the website


S

 

"Santa Claus" - an evaluator considered very generous and forgiving of minor mistakes. 

Booklets scored by "Santa Claus" evaluators generally receive higher scores than those examined by "Scrooges." This accounts for the Future Problem Solving Program's reliance on rank rather than raw score in determining the quality of booklets. Specifically, "Santa Clauses" are normally generous on all booklet in the set they evaluate, while "Scrooges" are normally tough.

••••LINKS:

Scrooge

Rank/Rankings

Raw Score





Scenario Performance (ScP) - the storytelling competition of Future Problem Solving.

Scenario Performance is about storytelling as opposed to story writing or scenario writing.

Individual students must choose one of the FPS annual topics as a basis for their ideas to create a story.

Stories may run between 4-5 minutes in duration and should be set at least 20 years in the future.

Submission should take the form of a video file of the student delivering an oral performance of his or her story, undertaken in one take without edits.

Virginia's program uses a video format, but the Scenario Performance competition at the International Conference is a live storytelling event with an audience.

Each participant competes in a grade level division established by Future Problem Solving (Junior 4-6, Middle 7-9, and Senior 10-12).

The first place winner from each division may be invited to the International Conference, subject to quality.

Katie Connor coordinates Scenario Performance in Virginia.

••••LINKS:

Grade Level Division

International Conference





Scenario Writing - the competitive program of Future Problem Solving that allows individual writers to create futuristic stories based on one of the five FPS topics.

Scenario Writing stories must range between 1,500 words or fewer.

Each participant competes in a grade level division established by Future Problem Solving (junior 4-6, middle 7-9, and senior 10-12).

Joanne Stanley coordinates Scenario Writing in Virginia.

••••LINKS:

Grade Level Division

Junior Division

Middle Division

Senior Division





Scholarship - the annual Future Problem Solving of Virginia college scholarship awarded to the a graduating high school senior who currently participates on a Future Problem Solving and/or Community Problem Solving team or has submitted an entry in the current year’s Scenario Writing or Scenario Performance competition.

Applicants must submit a 300 to 500 word essay responding to a specific situation.

The applicant is responsible for collecting the two recommendations and submitting a complete package containing an application, essay, coach recommendation, and teacher endorsement.

The teacher recommendation may come from any teacher familiar with the applicant’s academic performance but the endorsement from the coach must come from the applicant’s current Future Problem Solving coach.

The scholarship is paid directly to the winning applicant for use at the institution of higher learning of their choice.





Scoresheet - the official evaluation instrument for Global Issues Problem Solving booklets.





Scoring Guidelines - the information on the scoresheet that specifies how the evaluation was made. It also serves as a quick check for evaluators.

••••LINKS:

Evaluation Scale

Scoresheet





"Scrooge" - an evaluator considered very demanding.

Booklets scored by "scrooges" generally receive lower scores than those examined by "Santa Claus" evaluators. This accounts for the Future Problem Solving Program's reliance on rank rather than raw score in determining the quality of booklets. Specifically, a "Scrooge" is normally tough on all booklet in the set they evaluate, while a "Santa Claus" is normally generous and forgiving of minor mistakes in the booklets they evaluate.

••••LINKS:

Evaluator

Santa Claus





Senior Division - the competitive division of Future Problem Solving for participants in grades 10-12.

••••LINK:

Grade Level Division

 

 

Solution Ideas - the third step in the in the six-step Future Problem Solving process that requires participants to generate ideas that address their underlying problem and support their self-identified purpose.

Teams may submit up to 16 solutions for each problem solving round, with the exception of practice problem 1 which calls for 8 solutions.

Participants competing as Individuals may submit only up to 8 solutions for each problem.

There are three components of a completely written solution:
• who will carry out the solution
• the solution itself
• why the idea will successfully "solve" the underlying problem.

Solutions are evaluated on three scales:
• fluency - answers the key verb phrase and supports the purpose of the underlying problem (0-10 points)
• elaboration - the number of categories used (0-10 points)
• flexibility - any three of the who, what, how, or why components of each solution (0-10 points)

Participants can earn three extra originality bonus points for a solution that an evaluator considers rare and creative. Rare, in the future problem solving context, means that the solution does not appear in any other booklet within the set a particular evaluator is reviewing. To receive an originality bonus, the solution must be both rare and creative in the evaluators judgement.

••••LINKS:

Creative

Elaboration

Flexibility

Fluency

Individual

Originality Bonus

Rare

Underlying Problem





State Bowl - the final event of Future Problem Solving of Virginia's yearlong Olympic-style competition. The event takes place over two days each spring.

Teams and Individuals who win top honors in Global Issues Problem Solving at the state bowl become Virginia's representative to the International Conference.

Community Problem Solving, Scenario Writing, Scenario Performance, Wythe Awards, scholarship recipient and Mover & Shaker winners are announced at the State Bowl.

Community Problem Solvers set up displays of their entries during the booklet-writing sessions on Friday.

One competition that only occurs at the state bowl is the presentation of the action plan competition in which teams demonstrate their booklets' action plan with a four-minute skit.

The state bowl is held at various participating schools throughout the state.

••••LINKS:

Community Problem Solving

Future Problem Solving of Virginia

Global Issues Problem Solving

International Conference

Mover & Shaker

Presentation of the Action Plan

Scenario Presentation

Scenario Writing

Scholarship

Wythe Award





State Bowl Coordinator - the member of the Virginia Executive Board who organizes and supervises the state bowl.

Patti Rabil is the current state bowl coordinator.

••••LINK:

State Bowl





State Director - the executive in charge of Future Problem Solving in Virginia.

Patty Haskins in the current state director.

••••LINKS:

Executive Board





Stem - the opening introduction to the underlying problem.

FPSers may choose between "How might we" or "In what ways might we" as their stem.

The "we" in the stem should not be altered or specified. Solution ideas may originate from a variety of sources.

••••LINKS:

Solution Ideas

Underlying Problem





Steps - the formal stages of the Future Problem Solving process that follow a logical method for addressing and solving problems.

There are six steps in the FPS structure:

• Identify challenges related to the future scene
• Select an underlying problem
• Produce solution ideas to the underlying problem
• Generate and select criteria to evaluate solution ideas
• Evaluate solution ideas
• Develop an action plan

Steps proceed in order, alternating between divergent and convergent phases.

••••LINKS:

Action Plan

Challenges

Convergent Thinking

Criteria for Evaluation

Divergent Thinking

Evaluation Grid

Solution Ideas

Underlying Problem





Superlative - the expression of the highest possible degree of a criteria in the fourth step of a Future Problem Solving booklet.

Criteria questions must be stated as a superlative so that solutions may be compared.

Sample superlatives: best, highest, most. Not superlatives: good, high, many.

Superlatives can also be used in key verb phrases.

••••LINKS:

Criteria

Key Verb Phrases


T


Topic - the subject matter for competitive rounds of Future Problem Solving.

A different topic is designated for each problem stage (Practice Problem 1 & 2, Qualifying Problem, State Bowl, and International Conference).

Topics are selected by an online vote. Participants, coaches, parents, and other interested individuals are invited to take part in the selection process by choosing from a list of topic descriptions created by the Future Problem Solving Program International governing council.

Everyone may submit topical concepts for consideration.

Topics for 2018-19 are:

• practice problem 1 - Mission to Moon, Mars, and Beyond
• practice problem 2 - Drones
• qualifying problem - Food Loss & Waste
• state bowl - Coping with Stress

The international conference topic is announced in the spring prior to the competition.

All programs with the exception of Community Problem Solving use the year's designated topics.

••••LINKS:

Topic descriptions for 2018-19

Vote for future topics





E. Paul Torrance - the creator of the Future Problem Solving process.

Torrance (1915- 2003) was an American psychologist and leading researcher in the field of creativity who conducted the first FPS program for students in Athens, Georgia in 1974.





Total Rank Sum (TRS) - the sum total of a team’s ranks after successive evaluation rounds.

TRS is the basis for determining winners for both the qualifying problem and the state bowl. Although raw scores are used to assign ranks within an individual evaluator set of booklets, it is rank itself that decides the ultimate victor.

••••LINKS:

Rank/Rankings

Raw Score





Training Booklet - the self-directive booklet template created by Future Problem Solving of Virginia designed to train novice students to independently produce a practice problem 1 entry.

Training booklet templates contain specific instructions and helpful hints. Using the booklet may assist FPSers new to the process internalize skills and habits such as time management and attention to mandated requirements.

Use of the template may assist experienced teams in reviewing and reclaiming skills weakened by the summer break. Veteran teams are permitted to use and submit the training booklet template for the first practice problem, at their discretion.

Training booklets may only be used for practice problem 1 entries.

The template is an exclusive feature of Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

••••LINKS:

Booklet

Download Training Template


U


Underlying Problem - the formal description of the challenge a team or Individual competitor has chosen to solve. Selection of the underlying problem is the second step in the six-step Future Problem Solving process.

There are five required elements for a complete underlying problem:

• condition phrase (conditions in the future scene that prompted the
• selection of the challenge being converting into an underlying problem)
• stem (“How might we” or “In what ways might we”)
• key verb phrase (a phrase that describes what is to be accomplished)
• purpose (why the team or individual competitor wants to do what is set out in the key verb phrase)
• future scene parameters (place, time, topic)

The Underlying Problem is considered the most critical step in the Future Problem Solving process because it sets the course for each step that follows.

Underlying Problems are evaluated on three criteria:

• presence and completeness of a condition phrase (0-2 points)
• presence and completeness of a stem and key verb phrase (0-3 points)
• presence and completeness of a purpose (0-3 points)
• presence of future scene parameters (0-2 points)
• focus - degree to which the underlying problem is clearly stated and satisfactorily addresses the future scene's charge (1-10 points)
• adequacy/importance of the underlying problem - identifies a major important issue from the future scene(1-10 points)

••••LINKS:

Condition Phrase

Future Scene Parameters

Key Verb Phrase

Purpose

Stem

Underlying Problem
 


V


vafps.org - the official website of Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

The site provides information, news, and online services for coaches, participants, and others interested in FPS in the state.

Dan Baise currently coordinates the website.

••••LINK:

vafps.org website


W


Warm-up Fuzzy - an unofficial future scene meant for use in training and practice.

Future Problem Solving of Virginia occasionally posts warm-up fuzzies on the program website.

Only future scenes mailed from the state office may be used for practice problems 1 and 2, and the qualifying problem. Official future scenes are never posted online.

••••LINK:

Future Scene





Why (W) for the Challenge - the evaluation rating of a challenge that does not relate to the future scene.

A challenge must be considered relevant to receive points on the step 1 fluency scale.

A challenge receiving a (W) cannot receive points for fluency, elaboration, flexibility or be considered for an originality bonus.

••••LINKS:

Challenge

Elaboration

Flexibility

Fluency

Future Scene

Originality Bonus





Why (W) for the Solution Idea - the evaluation rating of a solution idea that does not relate to the underlying problem.

A solution idea must be considered relevant to receive points on the step 3 fluency scale.

A solution idea receiving a (W) cannot receive points for fluency, elaboration, flexibility or be considered for an originality bonus.

••••LINK:

Elaboration

Flexibility

Fluency

Originality Bonus

Solution Idea

Underlying Problem





Workshop - A training session provided by Future Problem Solving of Virginia for coaches, potential coaches, evaluators, and potential evaluators.

Workshops are generally conducted for all programs in late summer.

The program website, vafps.org, provides information about each workshop as well as online registration.

••••LINK:

Coach

Evaluator

Registration





Wythe Award - an award given annually to the outstanding team member in each grade level of Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

Nominations must come from a fellow teammate and carry the endorsement of the nominee's coach.

The awards are presented each year at the state bowl.

The award is named for George Wythe, a prominent Virginian of the Revolutionary period who inspired others with his intellect and keen sense of honesty and honor.

••••LINKS:

George Wythe Wikipedia article

State Bowl


Y


Yes (Y) - The evaluation of a challenge considered to have a chance of existing or occurring.

A challenge must receive a yes score to be factored into the formula for assigning points to the challenge fluency scale.

Challenges receiving any evaluation other than yes (perhaps, why, or duplicate) cannot receive points for elaboration, flexibility, or an originality bonus.

••••LINKS:

Challenge

Elaboration

Flexibility

Fluency

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